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The Concept of
Personality Revealed Through The Pancanikaya - Ven. Thich Chon-Thien
Institute of Buddhist Studies
IV.2 Chapter 2
The Five Aggregates and Individualized Education
As discussed in (IV. 1.5), training a man for his regard of wisdom requires various spirits of education very human, practical and realistic, although such a theory of personality as usual is not available here.
IV.2.1: INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION
With regard to individual differences in the spheres of physics, psychology, spirituality, social class and capacity, individualized education is needed in schools of modern time. Lord Buddha was the one who taught people on the basis of spirits of individualized education in response to various temperaments of men: Precepts (or Sėla) applied for lay people are different from those applied for monks and nuns. Speeches used to teach dhamma to worldly persons are different from those used to teach the learned.
In Kindred Sayings, Vol. V, PTS, 1990, pp. 364-365, it is recorded that:
When introducing "passion" to peasants or worldly men, Lord Buddha used simple words spoken by them in daily life. He said:
The picture of an ill-thatched and well-thatched house is very close to the peasants: it will be very easy for them to understand what Lord Buddha means.
For the learned lay people or monks, Lord Buddha used the language spoken by them, such as:
Or such as:
This language sounds very philosophical and thoughtful. It may keep a deep attention of the learned.
All the above examples imply the same doctrine of wisdom, although they are spoken in different languages. This is the meaning of the expression that: "Lord Buddha taught His wonderful Dhamma in different ways to different groups of listeners"
In Khuddakanikāya, the stories about Therā and Therė were recorded that : Lord Buddha did teach them in different ways to destroy their fetters. This says themeaning of individualized education: each person has his own Kamma, and so he needs a separate way to deal with that Kamma. In other words, each individual thinks with his own mind and goes with his own legs.
A system of individualized education demands educational spirits of self-responsibility, self-confidence, self-support, self-control. self-acceptance, self-awareness, etc... Without them, it cannot work.
For self-responsibility, Lord Buddha did ask people not to depend on Him or on any external power. He taught:
Dhammapada, Verse No 2, says similarly: if a man acts or speaks with a pure thought, happiness follows him like his shadow that never leaves him.
All the above teachings imply the emphasis on the spirit of self-responsibility. Without it, the law of Kamma does not work, and Buddhism has nothing to do with human beings. Without it, no system of social law could be implemented, and human society immediately falls into disturbances. Without it, no system of education can be formed either. Self-responsibility is therefore one of the root spirits of Buddhist education as well as non - Buddhist education.
It should be noted here that: Lord Buddha taught the truth of selflessness of every existing thing on the one hand, and asked a person to regard things as not "he", not "his" and not "his self" so that he can abandon craving and grasping - the causes of his suffering, on the other hand. He taught the self-spirits of education so that the person himself can develop his capacities for his liberation and happiness. No contradiction exists therein. This is the only way for him to achieve his purpose of life: wisdom and happiness, and to achieve the truth of selflessness: the ultimate Noble Truth, because the other self-perception ways having been tested by human beings just cannot resolve their fateful suffering.
That spirit of self-responsibility therefore helps a person get out of the phenomenon of alienation and really proves that the non-self-perception way of life is extremely close to individuals and human society.
Besides self-responsibility, the practice of wisdom regard asks the practician to have self-confidence being sure that with his own effort he can realize truth and happiness in the here - and - now.
The meaning of taking refuge in oneself, as Lord Buddha taught above, is the meaning of self-confidence.
The fact Lord Buddha declared in the Assembly of Sangha the attainment of Arahantship of those who got it implies the encouragement of self-confidence and the awakening of self-confidence in those who had not attained the highest Sainthood. This will help them improve their self-control shaken by a lack of self-confidence. Lord Buddha said:
When the Kālāmas wavered among various points of view of non-Buddhist masters, they came to Lord Buddha for advice, Lord Buddha spoke:
The above teaching is but a guidance suggesting the Kālāmas to turn back to their true experience of life and to be confident in themselves.
Indeed, in daily life, a person can continue surviving without confidence in others, but without self-confidence he cannot survive; otherwise, he exists as a body without soul.
In a religious life, every task done for liberation, the release of suffering, requires the presence of right view, right thought and right effort which never lack of self-confidence. A stream Enterer (sotagami), the first fruit (phala) of Sainthood, is defined as the one who has unshaken confidence in Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha and sėla (precepts), so he must have confidence in himself and his effort.
The fact that Lord Buddha enlightened in this life through His own effort has a meaning of establishing self-confidence for human beings: with his own effort, a human being can attain what Lord Buddha attained under the Bodhi-tree. And, even the Noble Truth of Dependent Origination Lord Buddha realized gives individuals a confidence that a man's suffering and ignorance are conditioned: they are unreal and may be changed if he has right thoughts and actions.
The above statements all imply the meaning of establishing self- confidence.
With self-responsibility and self-confidence, a person starts practising his regard of wisdom to extinguish his troubles. The regard asks him to be aware of existing things around him without attachment to them. So, from his observing and analysing things his awareness isreinforced: this is the existence of self-awareness.
In the course of his practice of the mentioned regard, he will see the impermanence, egolessness and suffering of the five aggregates. This seeing is meant his self-awareness which helps him detach from his desire for impermanent things and his troubles. When this practice is cultivated again and again; his "self-awareness" will be at a level called wisdom (pannā). In other words, in worldly men, self-awareness really is "right view" and "right thought"; in meditations, it is called medetative vision; and in Saints, it is called wisdom or perfect wisdom.
On the basis of awareness, the practician develops his "self-control" of Activities aggregate (meaning controlling his mind, his speech and his body) and his task of the blowing off his impurities as Lord Buddha said:
Self-awareness is the soul of a person's regard of wisdom indeed: it is the start and also the destination of that regard. In other words, self-awareness is the first and last purpose of practising Dhamma.
It is this which is the object of the search for truth of man, but not any nature of personality.
In the case a person's awareness is not strong enough or is absent from his regard to things, especially his regard to the inside parts of his five aggregates, his wrong view and thought, as of his kamma, arise in his mind and lead him to wrong deeds and to troubles. This is the time when he becomes unsatisfied with himself: his body, his descent, knowledge or social position, etc. So, for preventing the arising of wrong thoughts and deeds in that case, the person should learn to accept what he is and what he has. This is the meaning of self-acceptance.
For his body, a person always wishes for a good looking form with beautiful face, complexion, etc. If his body appears not good looking as what he wants, he feels so painful. For his descent, if he was born in a family of low caste, he feels terribly disappointed. For his knowledge and social position, if he does not have high knowledge and high rank to be admired or respected, he may feel so sad... In addition to those things, hornours, praises, advantages,.., may cause him shaking. Therefore, Lord Buddha declared:
The above worldly conditions are impermanent. Even when a person gets "gain, fame, praise and contentment" his fear of change may cause his mind agitated and worried. So, to keep his mind in peace he must know how to accept what he is. Otherwise, the worldly conditions will happen to him as a strong wind blowing and striking at the root of his meditation tree and causing disaster in his mind.
Spirit of Practicalness
A person's trouble may be caused by his wrong thought of things: he thinks of things that should not bethought of, or does not think of things to be thought of as the following teaching mentions:
The discourse on "Bhaddekaratta" explained the meaning implied in the above teaching. With regard to this discourse, a person thinks of his material shape in the past, thinks of his feeling, his perception, his activities, his conciousness in the past, and delights therein: this is the meaning of following after the past that should not be done.
The person thinks of his future and a thought arises in his mind that: "may my body, my feeling, my perception, my activities, my consciousness be thus in the future" and he delights therein: this is the meaning of desiring future that should not be done.
As to the present things, he should regard his body, his feeling, his perception, his activities, his consciousness as not his self, or self not having them, or they are not in the self, or the self not in them: this is the meaning of having vision of persent things he should practise day after day.
So, the above teaching really shows individuals the practical way to live in peace of mind: if a person practises it one day, he will be a sage at peace in one day; if he practises it day after day, he may become a true sage, who completely destroys the cause of all troubles and sufferings, and abides in happiness for good.
In the case of a worldly man who just can practise it partly, he may reduce his immediate troubles to the least, and save a lot of energy for use for his jobs.
In the author's opinion, following after the past or desiring the future is living with the image of reality, but not living in reality; this is an unrealistic and unpractical way of life. Living in the very present moment is living a true life which can help a man see things as they really are: this is a realistic and practical way to live: this also is the meaning of the spirit of practicalness taught by Lord Buddha.
Spirit of middle way:
Another spirit of education taught by Lord Buddha to help individuals avoid two extremes of life for vision, knowledge and calm is the spirit of middle way. In His first discourse of Noble Truths He said:
Even to the practice of "right effort", which is the most important task in completing other tasks, the practician should do in time and in the spirit of middle-way. Otherwise, the practice will become unworthy and unprofitable, as Lord Buddha showed:
The above teaching is excellent advice by Lord Buddha for individuals practising Dhamma. It always requires wisdom (or right view and right thought) to follow a person's mind to know where it is to choose which path is appropriate for the immediate practice - knowing where one's mind also means self - understanding.
Spirit of analysis:
The middle way of practice is also lighted up by other interesting spirits such as analysis, criticism and creativeness.
It must be said that Lord Buddha's method of teaching Dhamma is analysis based on reality. This method is far different from those which are based on pure reasons of soul - theories. The Four Noble Truths preached for the first time at Deer Park, Benares, started from reality: "life is suffering", then analysed in fouraspects: suffering which is birth, old-age, sickness, death, separating from what one likes, being with what one dislikes not getting what one wants, in short, five aggregates are suffering; the cause of suffering which is craving or the arising of Dependent Origination; the cessation of suffering which is Nibbaāna; and the way to the cessation of suffering which is the Eightfold Noble Path.
The doctrine of Dependent Origination, the truth of this world, and the five aggregates making up what is called a man were analysed thoroughly by Lord Buddha.
Analysing the understanding an existing thing, Lord Buddha showed that: a man should know its existence, the cause of its existence, its ceasing, and the way to its ceasing (in many discourses).
For the dhammas which can only be seen directly by perfect wisdom, Lord Buddha advised individuals not to think of them, such as:
For states of mind, such as lust (lobha), malice (dosa) and illusion (moha), He analysed and showed that one can understand them by seeing them with the eye of wisdom, but not with belief, argument or reflection on reasons... He taught:
It is similar for hearing a sound with the ear, smelling a scent with the nose, tasting a savour with the tongue, contacting a tangible with the body, and cognizing a mental state with the mind.
In Gradual Sayings (Vol I, PTS, 1989, pp. 178-179), Lord Buddha analysed the conditions expressed by the one who is competent or incompetent to discuss, and advised His disciples to follow the following basic points:
The above are typical cases of analysis among so many cases taught by Lord Buddha. All of them will bring men insight into things, but not knowledge coming from the experience of sense organs.
Spirit of criticism:
Together with the method of analysis, Lord Buddha taught a spirit of criticism. This spirit estimates the object analysed whether it is right or wrong, wholesome or unwholesome, acceptable or unacceptable, suitable to Dhamma or not; etc. after process of analysis.
In the teaching for the Kālamas mentioned before, it runs that, "... Be ye not misled by report..." the Tathāgata asked His disciples to criticize things on the basis of their observation, analysis and wisdom. He asked them, in "the discourse on Inquiring" (vėmamsakasuttam) (Middle Length Saying, Vol, No 47) to observe and check Him whether He is a Fully self - awakened One or not. He said:
The above quotation proves Lord Buddha, on His way of educating men, concerned much about the spirit of criticism. This spirit will help His disciples improve their "self - awareness", "self - understanding", "self- confidence", their capacity of analysis, and their vision. This sounds very wise and human.
Spirit of creativeness:
Being with the wisdom regard, self - awareness, spirit of criticism,.., creativeness is another distinguished spirit of Buddhist education.
The wisdom regard to things existing in "self - awareness" always sees things as they really are in the very present moment. These things are flowing on and on without any pause: this means they always are new at each moment: the subject of the regard is new, and its object is also new. This is the condition of the seeing of creativeness.
Charles E. Skinner in his book titled "Educational Psychology'' wrote:
With regard to this definition of creative thinking, or creative thinker, the Buddhist way of life led by the wisdom regard ; or by right view and right thought; really is a way of life of creativeness.
It may be said without doubt that the individual's characteristics of self-confidence, self-awareness, self-support, self-responsibility, criticism, analysis, actually are those of a creative thinker. When a person's task of cultivating his regard to things is done, the five hindrances (panca niėvaranāni) and the ten fetters (dasa kilesā) hindering his mind from the truth of things are gradually destroyed, and his mind becomes free: this free mental state really is a state of creativeness. When his mind abides in the third and fourth meditation, his regard can see in the depth of the existence of things and discover new areas of them: this is a regard of creativeness.
Such is the spirit of creativeness of the way of life taught by Lord Buddha.
Spirit of meditation:
The wisdom regard mentioned will be reinforced and the source of creativeness of mind will be awakened by the practice of meditation which is the main task of the Buddhist Way (Magga) to liberation.
Meditation is understood as calming individual's desire and immediate troubles. It transforms the five hindrances (restlessness, torpor and sloth, sensuous desire, ill-will, sceptical doubt) into the five meditative mental factors (thought-conception, discursive thinking, rapture; joy, equanimity- happiness-one pointedness in the "first meditation; rapture; joy, equanimity-happiness- onepointedness in the "second meditation"; joy, equanimity-happiness-onepointedness in the "third meditation"; equanimity - happiness - one pointednessin the "fourth meditation"). And all evil thoughts arising from the five hindrances also are calmed or destroyed.
In the "fourth meditation", the wisdom regard or vipassana is developed fast and comfortably.
So, meditation responds to the following purposes of life:
This is why Lord Buddha taught His disciples that:
So, during the period of time of practising meditation for wisdom regard, an individual lives in the fresh air of mind with happy feelings and gets rid of all troubles, worries withering the flowers of young generations
In addition to the above things, the practice of following breathing in - and breathing out may help worldly men improve their capacity of memory and observation which is very interesting to students in schools; the practice of following and observing their mind will help them see their mental problems as the result of a task of self - therapy.
In short, the way of Buddhist meditation, including Calm (samatha) and Insight (vipassanā) is the way of seeing, developing and cultivating one's mind. Without it, a person cannot understand what he really is, and cannot resolve his psychological problems for peace and happiness in the here - and - now, as Lord Buddha affirmed:
But being with the practice of it - meaning the practice of Four Foundations of Mindfulness, cattāro satipatthāna - is the real meaning of a significant life to live: it is the way of return to oneself for taking refuge in oneself but not in any other man or superpower; it is the way to be an island for oneself. During His last days before parinibbāna, Lord Buddha solicitously taught Ānanda, his closest disciple, that:
This is the only way for everybody: When this way is put into practice, many different results will come to different practicians because of their different temperaments, capacities, volitions, efforts, determinations, etc., called their old and new Kammas. So, Kamma is another subject to be examined for understanding a man's activities.
IV.2.2: INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION
Verse No. 1 and verse No. 2 of Dhammapada as quoted in the part of "Spirit of Self- responsibility" of this work, imply the meaning of Kamma which says:
* Man's thought put on an action of body, speech or mind is the root cause of his deed defining his deed is either good or evil. The result of it will be happy or painful accordingly.
* Man's kamma is called evil, if it is caused by craving, ill - will or illusion.
* Man's kamma is called good, if it is caused by desirelessness, compassion or wisdom.
* Unwholesome deed will actually lead the doer to woe - states of existence.
* Wholesome deed will lead the doer to happy states of existence.
* Between the cause of a deed and its result exists a short or long period of time, according to the kind of kamma.
* No external power gives reward or punishment to a man's deed.
* The doer of deeds also is the receiver of their results as Lord Buddha declared:
Some non-Buddhists claim that according to the Buddhist doctrine of Kamma this life is nothing but the result of kamma having been done in previous lives: it is predetermined or predestinate. But, in reality, it does not appear as simple as such. There are two kinds of kamma which are called old kamma and new kamma as the following teaching mentions:
As the definition of old and new kamma quoted above, old kamma is what has made up this body of the five aggregates with its relation to the surroundings, such as: family, social class, country, etc., being born as a male, or female with good looking or bad looking body, with nice complexion or not, with graceful or ungraceful face, with a high I.Q. quotient or a low I.Q. quotient, receiving good education or not, etc. These things are out of a person's mind.
The new Kamma is defined as what a man has done, is doing and will do in this life through his body, speech and mind. The intention, effort, desire, will to live, determination, etc., of a person are mental agents of his new Kamma. These things can cause him suffering or happy according to his regard to things.
So, all causes of the circle of birth - and - death created in the past or in the present are what a man is facing in the here - and - now: they all exist only in the sphere of the five aggregates. This is the reason why Lord Buddha's disciples can attain Arahatship by destroying all defilements arising from aggregates only. And this is the meaning of considering the five aggregates as an immense ocean of suffering to be acrossed.
The gravest result the old kamma has left for a human being in this life is his habit of thirsting for things, and of thinking of things as having a permanent self (or soul) which has created the current human culture full of troubles. If a person brings up his self - thought and desire, he will strengthen his old Kamma and go further in suffering. If he stops them, he will come to cease his old and new Kamma for freedom and happiness. In fact, he appears completely free in the very present moment to make any choice he wants between what he should do and what he should not. It is the present moment which is when he copes with his desire arising from his thought caused by the attraction of things. This desire invades his mind. He should know the way to fight against it as it is taught by the following teaching:
Here, the author recognizes that Lord Buddha's teaching on the doctrine of Kamma really emphasizes an individual's new Kamma, or mental, oral, bodily actions, leading to ceasing Kamma itself. His teaching is centered on seeing the truth of dependent origination of the five aggregates and detaching from them for true happiness, but not on the search for personality as an entity.
In daily life, people tend to assimilate themselves with conditioned aggregates, therefore they fall into suffering caused by change. If they see their wrong view they will come to the cultivation of the aggregates for the release of their suffering
IV.2.3. CULTIVATION OF THE FIVE AGGREGATES AND EDUCATION
As discussed before, Kamma is volitional action. Volitional action is activities aggregate. The operation of activities aggregate is that of the five aggregates. So Kamma actually is the operation of those aggregates.
The Buddhist Way (magga) releasing the bondage of Kamma means releasing the bondage of the five aggregates. This suggests that the cultivation of aggregates is the task for liberation which has two things to do:
This task is therefore for the cessation of his troubles and sufferings which is the cherished dream of a man, and is the root purpose the branch of modern educational psychology aims at. All teachings of Lord Buddha recorded in Pāli Suttapitaka are centered on this great point.
Once, Sāriputta Mahāthera, the Chief disciple of Lord Buddha Gotama, explained:
The meaning of "right view" declared in the above quotation implies the meaning of right view used for counselors and psychotherapists in mordern schools whose role is helping a client understand his troubles, the cause of his troubles, the cessation of his troubles and the way to the cessation of them.
The meaning of "right aspiration", or thought forrenunciation, thought for non-malevolence, and thought for harmlessness, is the motive force in a person's deeds leading to peace of mind. This will open an operation of the five aggregates to mental peace.
Sāriputta Mahāthero continues explaining:
The above actions called good deeds will help a person control a lot of troubles arising from his mind. Inversely, if a person does evil deeds he will receive bad results in this life and in the next existence which are suffering. On the basis of doing good deeds he practises meditation and easily attains concentration by his right effort:
Right endeavour, according to the above teaching, is a mental force to stop the cause of mental troubles, and to make arisen skilled thoughts. Without it, the task of meditation is difficult to be done, and the Way (Magga) is hard to be performed. Concentration is therefore necessary to be supported by "right effort" and the later is listed in the group of samādhi: right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.
With right effort, the practician comes to practise right mindfulness, or the Foundations of mindfulness dissussed in (IV.2.1: Spirit of meditation), for bare attention, keen observation, calm and awareness. In concentrations, he can wipe out his evil thoughts. In the fourth meditation, sensual desires are ejected, and Insight (vipassana) is developed: he can know and see things as they really are, abide in a free state of mind and a feeling of happiness. Here, if Insight is well-developed, his regard of wisdom to aggregates may completely destroy his defilements for perfected Wisdom or Enlightenment.
In short, the above factors of the task of cultivation relate closely to each other, in which "right view" is the most important factor being considered as the starting point and destination of the practising the Way. With ragard to their relationship, Lord Buddha taught:
In short form, the above Eightfold Path may be expressed in three groups: Morals or Sėla (right speech, right action and right livelyhood), Meditation (right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration or Samādhi), and Wisdom or Pannā (right view and right thought) which are three basic steps of cultivation of one's mind. These steps are so important that Lord Buddha repeated them several times during His last days inlife:
In principle, all teachings of Lord Buddha recorded in Pancanikaāya are aimed at releasing human beings' troubles in this life. They have a function of helping an individual see the way to make arise the skilful thought, to release the opposite evil thought controlling his mind: for example, the five meditative mental factors releasing the five hindrances; compassion or mettā (or adosa) releasing ill - will (dosa); detachment or greedilessness (alobha) releasing greediness (lobha); wisdom or non- illusion (amoha) releasing illusion (moha); perception of selflessness, impermanence and suffering releasing conceit "I am" etc.. This task called the cultivation of the five aggregates or mind - development is done by the individual himself and by his effort itself in the present. The individual really is mentally free performing the task in the here - and - now. He just starts from his present conditions of life which depend on his body, health, knowledge, emotion, social position, etc., especially from his thirst for things: On the one hand, he continues going on his present way of life, on the other hand, should be aware of the dangers of his desire for things caused by impermanence, and should observe and analyse with his wisdom what is going on with his thoughts and feelings. In doing this, his thought of detachment from things observed will arise in his mind and bring him liberation of mind and of wisdom.
For a laywoman or a layman who has duties to do in daily life for herself // himself, for her // his family, company or religion, and country, Lord Buddha practically introduced many steps of the way of cultivation. The first and basic step for her // him is, according to the discourse on Sigālaka (Dėghanikāya, Sutta No 31), to abandon four wrong deeds: not taking life, not taking what is not given, not doing sexual misconduct, and not lying speech; not doing what is caused by attachment, ill - will, folly or fear; not to waste his substance either by the six ways which are strong drink, haunting the streets at unfitting times, attending affairs, gambling, keeping bad company, and habitual idleness.
In addition to the above things, a laity should live in the six good relationships of his family and society: between parents and children, between husband and wife, between teacher and student, among relatives and neighbours, between monk and laity, and between employer and employee. These relationships are based on human love, loyalty, sincerity, gratitude, mutualacceptance, mutual understanding and mutual respect which relate closely to individuals' happiness in the present.
On the basis of the task suggested above, a laity can improve his mind -develpoment by practising the Four Foundations of Mindfulness or practising just mindfulness of body together with compassion as showed in the discourse of Compassion or Loving - Kindness (Mettāsutta) in Suttanipāta of the Khuddakanikāya, generally as follows:
* Practising mindfulness of compassion when he is lying, standing, sitting or walking.
* Wishing all beings joy and happiness to make arise thought of loving - kindness in his mind.
* Wishing all beings not wishing each other ill or harm.
* Concerning about other's pain and protecting them from suffering as a mother's doing for her only child.
All the tasks mentioned above are very helpful for the development of the wholeness of man, and may have good contributions to the formation of a new course of human culture and education. On the side of a practician, he is strongly influenced by the qualities of the culture and education of the society he is living in. This is to be discussed more.
Education for the cultivation of the five aggregates:
What a child is after his mother gave a birth to him is the result of his old kamma, according to the teaching of Lord Buddha on "new and old Kamma" discussed before. What of education he has received from his family and society will put strong influences on his way of thought, attitude of life, desire, aspiration and deeds which are of what is called new Kamma. It may be said that what a person does or will do by mind, speech or body is what culture and education of his society suggest him to. In this life, he appears as an "educational being" rather than "a reasonable animal" defined in the old days. On the other side, it is self - thought of individuals which has shaped the course of education and culture of a society. This interrelationship says something different to the development of the five aggregates leading to happiness which requires a non - self way of thought and desire. To help individuals cultivate their mind on this way of life, all means of communication in the present society - such as books, magazines, newspapers, radio - broadcast, movies, etc.; - Which strengthen self - thought and sensual and sexual desire need to be adjusted or reduced to a considerable level; all means of communication awakening non - self thought and desire need to be maintained and developed. This requires education to do the same thing: there is no need to build up any theory of personality as a self, but new critical studies are needed, which are:
* Critical studies on physical body and health for a knowledge of troubles arising from it.
* Critical studies on sensuality and sexuality for aknowledge of dealing with them for a physiopsychological balance and peace of mind.
* Critical studies on perception, thought, knowledge for a realization the true value of all values in life.
* Critical studies on behaviours, psychology, psychiatry getting along the way of development of the five aggregates.
* Critical studies on sociology, ecology, anthropology, sciences, literature and education for a knowledge of conditions of life for happiness of man.
All those studies aim at the same purpose that is building up a good society for man to live in happiness, and therefore building up a new culture.
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