CHAPTER IV -
Analysis of Thought-Processes
Vithi - Sangaha Vibhago
Five Sense-Door Thought-process - Introductory
1. Cittuppadanamicc' evam katva sangaham uttaram
Pavattisangaham nama patisandhippavattiyam
Pavakkhama samasena yathasambhavato
ž 1. Having thus completed the noble
compendium of consciousness and its concomitants (with respect to feelings etc.), I shall
briefly describe, in due order, the compendium of (thought) processes in lifetime,
according to the planes and individuals, and as they are determined by what
(consciousness) that precedes and by what that follows (1) .
1. In the preceding chapter states of
consciousness and mental concomitants were treated according to feelings, roots, etc. In
the present one the author deals with thought processes as they arise through the mind and
the other five senses, in accordance with the different kinds of individuals and planes of
The Pali phrase pubbaparaniyamitam
needs an explanation. The commentary explains it thus - this citta arises after so
many cittas, and so many cittas follow this citta (idam ettakehi param,
imassa anantaram, ettakani cittani).
Patisandhi here refers to the initial
thought-process that occurs at the moment of conception in a new birth. Pavatti
refers to all thought-processes that occur during the course of one's lifetime.
The translation of these two verses appears
in the Compendium of Philosophy as follows:-
"This further summary of geneses
Of thought now having made, I will go on
To speak concisely, summing up again
Processes of the mind, in birth and life,
By order due, the 'after,' the 'before,'
Distinguishing both person and life-plane.' (p. 124).
2. Cha vatthuni, cha dvarani, cha alambanani, cha vi˝˝anani, cha vithiyo, chadha
visayappavatti c'ati vithisangahe chachakkani veditabbani.
kamma-kammani-mitta-gatinimitta-vasena tividha hoti visayappavatti .
Tattha vatthudvaralambanani pubbe vuttanayen'
ghanavi˝˝anam, jivhavi˝˝anam, kayavi˝˝anam manovi˝˝anam c'ati cha vi˝˝anani.
Vithiyo pana cakkhudvaravithi, sotadvara
vithi, ghanadvaravithi, jivhadvaravithi, kayadvaravithi, manodvaravithi c'ati dvaravasena
va cakkhuvi˝˝anavithi, sotavi˝˝anavithi, ghanavi˝˝anavithi, jivhavi˝˝anavithi,
kayavi˝˝anavithi manovi˝˝anavithi c'ati vi˝˝anavasena va dvarappavatta
ž 3. Atimahantam, mahantam, parittam
atiparittam c'ati pa˝cadvare manodvare, vibhutamavibhutam c'ati chadha visayappavatti
ekacittakkhanam nama. Tani pana sattarasacittakkhanani rupadhammanam ayu.
Ekacittakkhanatitani va, bahucittakkhanatitani va thitippattan' eva pa˝calambanani
pa˝cadvare apatham agacchanti. Tasma yadi ekacittakkhanatitakam ruparammanam cakkhussa
apatham agacchati. Tato dvikkhattum bhavange calite bhavangasotam vocchinditva tam'eva
ruparammanam avajjentam pa˝cadvaravajjanacittam uppajjitva nirujjhati . Tato tass'
anantaram tam' eva rupam passantam cakkhuvi˝˝anam, sampaticchantam sampaticchanacittam,
santirayamanam santiranacittam, vavatthapentam votthapanacittam c'ati yathakkamam
uppajjitva nirujjhanti. Tato param ek' unatimsakamavacarajavanesu yam ki˝ci
laddhapaccayam yebhuyyena sattakkhattum javati. Javananubandhani ca dve tadarammanapakani
yatharaham pavattanti. Tato param bhavangapato.
Ettavata cuddasacittuppada dve
bhavangacalanani pubbevatitakamekacittakkhananti katva sattarasa cittakkhanani
paripurenti. Tato param nirujihati. Alambanam' etam atimahantam nama gocaram.
Yava tadalamban' uppada pana
appahon-tatitakam apatham agatam alambanam mahantam nama. Tattha javanavasane
bhavangapato' va hoti. Natthi tadalambanuppado.
Yava javanuppada' pi appanontatitakama-patham
agatam alambanam parittam nama.
Tattha javanam pi anuppajjitva
dvattikkhatthum votthapanam' eva pavattati. Tato param bhavangapato' va hoti.
Yava votthapanuppada ca pana appahontatitakam
apatham agatam nirodhasannamalambanam atiparittam nama. Tattha bhavangacalanam' eva hoti.
Icc' evam cakkhudvare, tatha sotadvaradisu
c'ati sabbatha' pi pa˝cadvare tadalambanajavana-votthapanamoghavara-sankhatanam catunnam
varanam yathakkamam alambanabhuta visayappavatti catudha veditabba.
ž 4. Vithicittani satt' eva
cittuppada catuddasa Catupa˝˝asa vitthara pa˝cadvare yatharaham.
Ayam' ettha pa˝cadvare
ž 2. In the compendium of
thought-processes six kinds of six classes each should be understood - namely,
i. six bases,
ii. six doors,
iii. six objects*,
iv. six-fold consciousness,
v. six processes (2), and
vi. sixfold presentation of objects (3)
The presentation of objects to the
process-freed consciousness** is threefold - namely,
(ii) Kamma sign, and
(iii) Destiny sign.
[* These first three classes have already
been discused in the previous chapter. They are repeated hero merely to complete the six
[** Namely, patisandhi, bhavanga and cuti.]
The bases, doors, and objects, therein, are
as described before.
The sixfold types of consciousness are
eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness,
body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness.
According to the doors the thought-processes
1. The process connected with the eye-door,
2. The process connected with the ear-door,
3. The process connected with the nose-door,
4. The process connected with the tongue-door,
5. The process connected with the body-door, and
6. The process connected with the mind-door.
Or, according to consciousness the
thought-processes are: -
1. The process connected with the
2. The process connected with the ear-consciousness
3. The process connected with the nose consciousness,
4. The process connected with the tongue-consciousness,
5. The process connected with the body-consciousness, and
6. The process connected with the mind consciousness.
The thought-procedure connected with the
doors should thus be co-ordinated.
ž 3. The sixfold presentation of objects (4)
should be understood as follows:-
a. At the five sense doors -
(i) 'very great,' (ii) 'great,' (iii)
'slight,' (iv) 'very slight.'
b. At the mind door -
(v) 'clear' and (vi) 'obscure.'
How is the intensity of objects be
The three instants such as genesis, static
(or development), and dissolution constitute one thought-moment. The duration of material
things consists of seventeen such thought-moments.
The five sense-objects enter the avenue of
five sense doors at the static stage when one or several thought moments have passed.
Hence the thought-process (4) runs as
Suppose a visible object which has passed one
(i) enters the avenue of eye. Then the bhavanga-consciousness
vibrates for one moment and perishes,
(ii, iii) arresting the bhavanga stream. Subsequently the five-door apprehending
(iv) arises and ceases apprehending that very visible object.
Thereafter the following thought-moments
arise and cease in order -
(v) eye-consciousness seeing that very form,
(vi) recipient consciousness receiving it,
(vii) investigating consciousness investigating it,
(viii) determining consciousness determining it.
Then any one of the 29 kinds of sense-sphere javanas,
thus causally conditioned, runs mostly for seven moments (ix - xv).
Following the javanas two retentive
resultants (xvi, xvii) arise accordingly. Finally comes the subsidence into the bhavanga.
Thus far seventeen thought-moments are
fourteen 'thought-arisings' (cittuppada)
two vibrations of bhavanga, and
one thought-moment that passed at t he inception.
Then the object ceases.
Such an object is termed 'very great.' (See
pp. 231, 232.)
That object which enters the avenue of sense,
having passed (a few moments) and is not able to survive till the arising of the retentive
thought-moments, is termed 'great. '
That object which enters the avenue of sense,
having passed (a few moments) and is not able to survive even till - the arising of the
javanas, is termed 'slight.'
In that case even the javanas do not arise,
but only the determining consciousness lasts for two or three moments and then there is
subsidence into bhavanga.
That object which is about to cease and which
enters the avenue of sense, having passed a few moments and is not able to survive till
the arising of determining consciousness, is termed 'very slight.'
In that case there is merely a vibration of
the bhavanga, but no genesis of a thought-process.
As the eye-door so is in the ear-door etc.
In all the five doors, the fourfold
presentation of objects should be understood, in due order, in the four ways, known as -
1. the course (ending with) retention.
2. the course (ending with) javana.
3. the course (ending with) determining, and
4. the futile course.
ž 4. There are seven modes* and fourteen
different types of consciousness in the thought-process. In detail there are accordingly
54** in the five doors.
Herein this is the method of thought-process
in the five sense-doors.
[* Namely, 1. avajjana, 2. pa˝ca
vi˝˝ana, 3. sampaticchana, 4. santirana, 5. votthapana, 6. javana,
(7 moments) and 7. tadalambana. These become 14 when the 7 javana moments
and 2 tadalambanas are reckoned separately.]
[** These comprise all the classes of
Sense-sphere consciousness which arise through the five sense-doors.]
2. Vithi is derived from vi + i,
This term means a way or street, but here it
is used in the sense of process (parampara). A thought-process consists of several
thought-moments, and a thought-moment is never called a citta-vithi.
3. Visayappavatti -
The commentarial explanation is - 'the
presentation of objects at the doors,' or 'the genesis of consciousness on the
presentation of such objects.' (visayanam dvaresu, visayesu ca cittanam pavatti).
The author evidently prefers the first
According to Abhidhamma ordinarily there
is no moment when we do not experience a particular kind of consciousness, hanging on to
some object - whether physical of mental. The time-limit of such a consciousness is termed
one thought-moment. The rapidity of the succession of such thought-moments is hardly
conceivable by the ken of human knowledge. Books state that within the brief duration of a
flash of lightning, or in the twinkling of an eye billions of thought-moments may arise
Each thought-moment consists of three minor
instants (khanas). They are uppada (arising or genesis), thiti
(static or development), and bhanga (cessation or dissolution).
Birth, decay, and death* correspond to these
three states. The interval between birth and death is regarded as decay.
Immediately after the cessation stage of a
thought-moment there results the genesis stage of the subsequent thought-moment. Thus each
unit of consciousness perishes conditioning another, transmitting at the same time all its
potentialities to its successor. There is, therefore, a continuous flow of consciousness
like a stream without any interruption.
[*These three stages correspond to the Hindu
view of Brahma (Creator). Vishnu (Preserver) and Siva (Destroyer).]
When a material object is presented to the
mind through one of the five sense-doors, a thought-process occurs, consisting of a series
of separate thought-moments leading one to the other in a particular, uniform order. This
order is known as the citta-niyama (psychic order). As a rule for a complete
perception of a physical object through one of the sense-doors precisely 17
thought-moments must pass. As such the time duration of matter is fixed at 17
thought-moments. After the expiration of that time-limit, one fundamental unit of matter
perishes giving birth to another unit. The first moment is regarded as the genesis (uppada),
the last as dissolution (bhanga), and the interval 15 moments as decay or
development (thiti or jara).
As a rule when an object enters the
consciousness through any of the doors one moment of the life-continuum elapses. This is
known as atita-bhavanga. Then the corresponding thought-process runs
uninterruptedly for 16 thought-moments. The object thus presented is regarded as 'very
If the thought-process ceases at the
expiration of javanas without giving rise to two retentive moments (tadalambana),
thus completing only 14 moments, then the object is called 'great'.
Sometimes the thought-process ceases at the
moment of determining (votthapana) without giving rise to the javanas,
completing only 7 thought-moments Then the object is termed 'slight.'
At times when an object enters the
consciousness there is merely a vibration of the life-continuum. Then the object is termed
When a so-called 'very great' or 'great'
object perceived through the five sense-doors, is subsequently conceived by the mind-door,
or when a thought process arising through the mind-door extends up to the retentive stage,
then the object is regarded as 'clear'.
When a thought process, arising through the
mind-door, ceases at the javana stage, the object is termed 'obscure'.
When, for instance, a person looks at the
radiant moon on a cloudless night, he gets a faint glimpse of the surrounding stars as
well. He focuses his attention on the moon, but he cannot avoid the sight of stars around.
The moon is regarded as a great object, while the stars are regarded as minor objects.
Both moon and stars are perceived by the mind at different moments. According to
Abhidhamma it is not correct to say that the stars are perceived by the sub-consciousness
and the moon by the consciousness.
5. Manodvare pana yadi vibhutamalambanam apatham agacchati, tato param bhavangacalana
- manodvaravajjanajavanavasane tadarammanapakani pavattanti. Tato param bhavangapato.
Avibhute panalambane javanavasane
bhavangapato' va hoti. Natthi tadalambanuppado'ti.
ž 6. Vithicittani tin'eva cittuppada
Vittharena pan' etthekacattalisa vibhavaye.
Ayam' ettha Paritta-javanavaro.
ž 5. In the mind-door, when a 'clear
object' enters that avenue, retentive resultants take place at the end of the bhavanga
vibrations, mind-door apprehending consciousness, and Javanas. After that there is
subsidence into the bhavanga.
In the case of all 'obscure object' there is
subsidence into bhavanga at the end of the Javanas, without giving rise to the
ž 6. Three modes and ten* different types
(of consciousness) in the thought-process are told. It will be explained that, in detail,
there are 41** kinds here.
Herein this is the section of the minor javana-procedure.
[* Namely, (1) manodvaravajjana, javana,
and tadalambana. When the 7 javanas and 2 tadalambanas are reckoned
separately they total 10 distinctive thought-moments.]
[**Afore-said 54-13 (dvipa˝cavi˝˝ana 10
+ sampaticchanas, 2 and pa˝cadvaravajjana 1) = 41.]
7. Appanajavanavare pana vibhutavibhutabhedo natthi. Tatha tadalambanuppado ca.
Tattha hi ˝anasampayuttakamavacarajavananam
atthannam a˝˝atarasmim parikammupacara˝ulomagotrabhu namena catukkhattum tikhattum' eva
va yathakkamam uppajjitva niruddhe tadanantaram' eva yatharaham catuttham pa˝camam va
chabbisati mahaggatalokuttarajavanesu yathabhiniharavasena yam ki˝ci javanam
appanavithimotarati. Tato param appanavasane bhavangapato'va hoti.
appana' pi somanassasahagata' va patikankhitabba. Upekkhasahagatajavananantaram
upekkhasahagata' va. Tattha' pi kusalajavana-nantaram kusalajavanan c'eva hetthima˝ca
phalattayamappeti. Kriyajavananantaram kriya javanam arahattaphala˝ ca appeti.
ž 8. Dvattimsa sukhapu˝˝amha
Sukhitakriyato attha cha sambhonti upekkhaka.
Puthujjanana sekkhanam kamapu˝˝a tihe tuto
Tihetukamakriyato vitaraganam appana.
Ayam' ettha manodvare vithi-cittappavatti nayo.
ž 7. In the ecstatic (5) javana-procedure
there is no distinction between 'clear' and 'obscure.' Likewise there is no arising of
In this case any one of the eight
Sense-sphere javanas accompanied by knowledge, arise, in due order, four times or
thrice, as 'preparation' (parikamma), 'approximation' (upacara),
'adaptation' (anuloma), and 'sublimation' (gotrabhu). Immediately after they
cease, in the fourth or fifth instant as the case may be any one of the javanas amongst
the 26 Sublime and Supramundane classes, descends into ecstatic process, in accordance
with the appropriate effort.
Here, immediately after a pleasurable javana,
a pleasurable ecstatic javana should be expected. After a javana,
accompanied by equanimity, an ecstatic javana, accompanied by equanimity, is to be
Here, too, a moral javana, is followed
by a moral javana and (in the case of attainment - samapatti) it gives rise
to three lower Fruits.
A functional javana is followed by a
functional javana and the Fruit of Arahatship.
ž 8. After (tihetuka) (6) pleasurable
meritorious thoughts (7) arise 32 (classes of consciousness) (8); after (tihetuka)
meritorious thoughts, accompanied by equanimity, 12 classes of consciousness (9); after (tihetuka)
pleasurable functional thoughts, 8 classes of consciousness (10); and after (tihetuka) functional
thoughts, accompanied by equanimity, 6 classes of consciousness (11).
To the worldlings and Sekhas ecstasy
results after tihetuka Sense-sphere meritorious thoughts, but to the Lustless
(Arahats) after tihetuka Sense-sphere functional thoughts.
Herein this is the method of
thought-processes with respect to mind-door.
5. Appana - (Sanskrit - arpana,
derived from ri, to go).
This is a rare Pali term found in Abhidhamma.
It is derived from the root i, to go
'I + the causal suffix; 'ape' +
ana. 'A' is substituted for 'i', and 'p' is duplicated; 'A' +
ppe + ana = appana. The initial 'a' is shortened before double 'p'.
Venerable Buddhaghosa defines 'appana'
as the directing or fixing of the one-pointed consciousness on an object (ekaggam
cittam arammane appenti).
Appana is a highly developed form of vitakka
- initial application of the mind, one of the jhana factors.
The aspirant who wishes to develop jhanas
takes for his object a suitable subject, according to his temperament. In the course of
his meditations, as mentioned in the first chapter, he arrives at a stage when he would be
able to experience the first jhanic ecstasy.
Then a thought-process runs as follows -
manodvaravajjana - parikamma -
upacara - anuloma - gotrabhu - appana
The first is the mind-door
consciousness, which precedes the javana stage, conditioned by objects that enter
the avenue of consciousness.
The initial thought-moment of the appana
javana-process is termed parikamma because it is a preparation for the desired
higher consciousness whether Sublime (mahaggata) or Supramundane (lokuttara).
This is followed by another thought-moment known as upacara because it arises in
proximity to the higher consciousness. Ordinarily these two thought-moments arise at the
beginning of the appana javana-process, but if the person is morally advanced only upacara
moment arises without the initial parikamma moment.
The third thought-moment is known as anuloma
because it arises in harmony with the preceding thought moments and the following gotrabhu
thought moment. Gotrabhu, literally, means that which overcomes the Sense-sphere
lineage or that which develops the sublime or exalted lineage. Immediately after this gotrabhu
thought-moment arises the appana jhana thought-moment. Absolute
one-pointedness of the mind is gained at this advanced stage of mental development.
The fully undeveloped jhana, present
in the preliminary thought-moments, is known as upacara samadhi, access
To a worldling and a Sekha one of the
four kamavacara moral javanas, accompanied by knowledge, arises as these
preliminary appana thought-moments. In the case of an Asekha it is one of
the four kamavacara functional javanas, accompanied by knowledge.
The Supramundane appana javana-process
occurs as follows -
In this thought-process
parikamma may or may not precede. As stated above it depends on the moral advancement of
the person. Here gotrabhu means that which overcomes the lineage of the worldling or that
which develops the supramundane lineage.
One of the four kamavacara moral javanas,
accompanied by knowledge, arises in these preliminary stages. The object of the first
three thought-moments is mundane but the object of the gotrabhu is supramundane Nibbana.
Nevertheless, this developed thought-moment is incapable of eradicating the innate
defilements. It is the magga (Path) consciousness that immediately follows, which performs
the double function of intuiting Nibbana and of eradicating the defilements. It should be
noted that the Path consciousness occurs only once. This is immediately followed by two
moments of phala (Fruit) consciousness if parikamma is present. Otherwise there will be
three phala thought-moments.
In the case of the second, third, fourth,
stages of Sainthood-the fourth thought-moment is named vodana, which means purification,
instead of gotrabhu. If the parikamma thought-moment precedes, vodana thought-moment
arises as the fourth, otherwise as the third.
Each of the four Supramundane Paths arises
only once in the course of one's life. But one may experience the Fruit consciousness even
for a whole day continuously. The three lower fruits, Sotapatti, Sakadagami, and Anagami
are preceded by a moral javana. When one enjoys the Fruit of Arahatship the javanas that
immediately precede must be functionals because an Arahat, being an Asekha does not
experience moral javanas.
6. Tihetuka - conditioned by three
hetus - alobha (generosity), adosa (goodwill) and amoha (wisdom)
7. Viz., two types of kamavacara
consciousness, accompanied by pleasure and knowledge.
8. Namely, the first 4 rupa jhanas and
28 (7x4) lokuttara jhanas. The Arahat Fruit and functionals are excluded.
9. Namely, 1, 5th rupa jhana + 4 arupa
jhanas + 7 lokuttara pa˝camajjhana.
10. Namely, 1st 4 rupa jhanas + 1st 4
arahatta phala jhanas.
11. Namely, 1, 5th rupa jhana + 4
arupa jhanas + 1, 5th arahattaphalajhana.
The Procedure of
9. Sabbattha' pi pan ettha anitthe arammane akusalavipakan' eva
pa˝cavi˝˝anasampaticchanasantiranatadarammanani, itthe kusalavipakani, ati-itthe pana
somanassasahagatan' eva santiranatadarammanani.
Tattha' pi somanassasahagatakriyajavanavasane
somanassasahagatan' eva tadarammanani bhavanti. Upekkhasahagatakriya javanavasane ca
upekkhasahagatan' eva honti.
Domanassasahagatajavanavasane ca pana
tadarammanani c' eva bhavangani ca upekkha sahagatan'eva bhavanti. Tasma yadi
somanassa-patisandhikassa domanassasahagatajavanavasane tadarammanasambhavo natthi. Tada
yam ki˝ci paricitapubbam parittarammanamarabbha upekkhasahagatasantiranam uppajjati.
Tamanantaritva bhavangapato' va hoti' ti' pi vadanti acariya. Tatha kamavacarajavanavasane
kamayacarasattanam kamavacaradhammesv' eva arammanabhutesu tadarammanam icchanti' ti.
ž 10. Kame javanasattarammananam
Vibhute ti mahante ca tadarammanamiritam.
Ayam' ettha Tadarammana Niyamo.
ž 9. Here, under all circumstances
(i.e., in both sense-door and mind-door) when an object (12) is undesirable, the five
sense-impressions, reception, investigation, retention (that arise) are immoral
resultants. If desirable, they are moral resultants. If the object is extremely desirable,
investigation and retention are accompanied by pleasure.
In this connection, at the end of functional
javanas accompanied by pleasure, there arise retentive thought-moments also accompanied by
pleasure. At the end of functional javanas, accompanied by equanimity, the retentive
thought moments are also accompanied by equanimity.
But at the end of javanas, accompanied by
displeasure, the retentive thought- moments and the bhavangas are also accompanied by
indifference. Hence to one whose rebirth-consciousness is accompanied by pleasure, if, at
the end of javanas, accompanied by displeasure, retentive thought-moments do not arise,
then, there arises an investigating consciousness accompanied by indifference, hanging on
to some sense-object with which one is familiar before. Immediately after, the teachers
say there is subsidence into the life-continuum.
Likewise they expect retention at the end of
Sense-sphere javanas to the Sense-sphere beings, only when Sense-sphere phenomena become
ž 10. Retention occurs, they say, in
connection with 'clear' and 'very great' objects when there is certainty as regards the
Sense-sphere javanas, beings, and objects.
Herein this is the procedure of retention.
12. Objects - Arammana
The desirability or undesirability of an
object is determined not according to individual temperament, but according to its
intrinsic nature. The resultant consciousness conditioned thereby is regarded as the
effect of one's good or bad action.
The sight of the Buddha will perhaps be
repulsive to a staunch heretic. His javana thoughts will naturally be unwholesome. But the
passive wholesome resultant eye-consciousness, caused by a past good kamma, is a kusala
vipaka. This vipaka is not conditioned by his will, but is an inevitable consequence. The
javana process, on the contrary, is conditioned by his own will.
Again, for instance, the mere sight of
excreta will be a source of delight to an ordinary dog. The object is generally
undesirable and is a bad effect (akusala vipaka), but the javana process caused thereby
will be wholesome to the dog. The accompanying feeling will also be pleasurable.
Although even an Arahat experiences an
akusala vipaka at the sight of an undesirable object, his javana process will neither be
wholesome nor unwholesome. The accompanying feeling will be one of equanimity.
Now, when an undesirable object is presented
either through the mind-door or five sense-doors, the sense-impressions, reception,
investigation, retention that occur in the respective thought-processes, are all bad
effects (akusala vipakas). The accompanying feeling is invariably upekkha, except in the
case of body-impression which is dukkha. These thought-moments are the inevitable results
of past bad actions.
If the presented object is desirable, then
the afore-said thought-moments are all good effects (kusala vipakas). Here too the
accompanying feeling is upekkha, except in the case of body-impression which is sukha. All
these thought-moments are the results of past good actions.
When the object is extremely desirable, the
feeling of the santirana moment differs. Instead of upekkha it is somanassa.
The tadarammanas followed by Sense sphere
functional javanas, accompanied by pleasure, are also associated with a similar feeling.
Likewise the upekkha javanas are followed by upekkha tadarammanas.
As a rule the preceding javanas and the
subsequent tadarammanas possess a similar feeling. Somanassa is followed by somanassa, and
upekkha by upekkha.
What happens when the javanas are accompanied
by domanassa as there are no domanassa tadarammanas?
If the rebirth-consciousness
(patisandhi-citta) of the person is accompanied by somanassa, then when javanas are
accompanied by domanassa, the tadarammanas, if they occur, will be accompanied by
equanimity (upekkha-sahagata), but if tadarammanas do not occur, then an adventitious
upekkha santirana, without any special function, will intervene for one moment. This
adventitious thought-moment is technically termed agantukabhavanga. Usually the object of
the javanas and that of the tadarammanas are identical. But in this particular case the
objects differ. The object of this santirana is another kamavacara object with which one
is familiar in the course of one's life. This object is termed paritta (smaller or lesser)
in comparison with the higher rupa, arupa and lokuttara objects.
If, on the other hand, the
rebirth-consciousness is not associated with somanassa, then the tadarammanas therein
become upekha as are the bhavangas that follow.
It should be noted that tadarammanas occur
only at the end of kamavacara javanas, only to kamavacara beings, and only in connection
with kamavacara objects, which are either 'very intense' or 'clear.'
Javana - Niyamo
11. Javanesu ca parittajavanavithiyam kamavacarajavanani sattakkhattum chakkhattum'
eva va javanti.
Mandappavattiyam pana maranakaladisu
Bhagavato pana yamakapatihariyakaladisu
lahukappavattiyam cattari pa˝ca va paccavekkhanacittani bhavanti' ti pi vadanti.
Adikammikassa pana pathamakappanayam
mahaggatajavanani, abhi˝˝ajavanani ca sabbada pi ekavaram eva javanti Tato param
Cattaro pana magguppada ekacittakkhanika.
Tato param dve tini phalacittani yatharaham uppajjanti. Tato param bhavangapato.
catuttharuppajavanam javati. Tato param nirodham phusati. Vutthanakale ca anagami phalam
va arahattaphalam va yatharaham ekavaram uppajjitva niruddhe bhavangapato' va hoti.
Sabbattha' pi samapattivithiyam pana
bhavvangasoto viya vithiniyamo natthi' ti katva bahuni pi labbhanti' ti, veditabbam.
ž 12. Sattakkhattum parittani
Avasesani labhanti javanani bahuni'pi.
Ayam' ettha Javana-Niyamo.
ž 11. Amongst the javanas, in a minor
process, the sense-sphere javanas run only for seven or six times.
But in the case of a feeble process and at
the time of dying, etc., only five times.
To the Exalted One, at the time of the 'Twin
Psychic Phenomenon' and the like, when the procedure is alert, only four or five
reflective thought-moments arise, they say.
To the beginner, during the first ecstasy,
the Sublime javanas and super-intellect javanas run only once at all times. Subsequently
there is subsidence into the life-continuum.
The arising of the four Paths endures for
only one thought-moment. Thereafter two or three Fruit thought-moments arise accordingly.
Then comes subsidence into life-continuum .
At the time of Supreme Cessation (14) the
fourth arupa javana runs twice and then contacts Cessation. When emerging (from this
ecstasy) either Anagami Fruit-consciousness or Arahatta Fruit-consciousness arises
accordingly. When it ceases there is subsidence into the life-continuum .
In the process of Attainments there is no
regularity of thought-processes, as in the stream of the life-continuum. Nevertheless, it
should be understood that many (Sublime and Supramundane) javanas take place.
ž 12. It should be known that minor javanas
arise seven times, the Path and Super-intellect only once, the rest (Sublime and
Supramundane) several times.
Herein this is the procedure of javanas.
13. Javana -
As it is difficult to give an adequate
English rendering for javana, the Pali term has been retained here.
Both psychologically and ethically javana
thought-moments are the most important, as both good and evil are determined at this
Sometimes the javanas last only for one
moment. At times they may continue for seven moments at the most.
Kamavacara javanas, as a rule, last only for
six or seven moments. When one is in a senseless state or is about to die, javanas are
confined to five moments.
When the Buddha, by His psychic powers, emits
fire and water, almost simultaneously, from His body, only four or five javana
thought-moments arise so as to reflect on the jhana factors, which is a prerequisite, for
the performance of this 'Twin Psychic Phenomenon'.
In the case of a yogi who develops the first
jhana for the first time, javana lasts only for one moment. So is it with those who
develop the five abhi˝˝as - namely,
i. Psychic Powers (Iddhividha),
ii. Celestial Ear (Dibba Sota),
iii. Celestial Eye (Dibba Cakkhu),
iv. Reading of Others' Thoughts (Paracittavijanana), and
v. Reminiscence of Previous Births (Pubbe-nivasanussati ˝ana).
The four classes of supramundane javana
Path-consciousness also last for one moment only. It is at this great moment that Nibbana
14. Nirodha Samapatti -
An Anagami or an Arahat, who has
developed the rupa and arupa jhanas, could, by will-power, temporarily arrest the ordinary
flow of consciousness even for seven days continuously. When one attains this state, all
mental activities cease, although there exist heat and life devoid of any breathing. The
difference between a corpse and one in this state, is that the latter possesses life.
Books state too that his body cannot be harmed. The attainment of such an ecstatic state
is known as nirodha samapatti. Nirodha means cessation, and samapatti is attainment.
Immediately prior to the attainment of this
state he experiences for two moments the fourth arupa jhana (state of neither perception
nor non-perception). The flow of consciousness then ceases until he emerges therefrom as
determined by him. As a rule he remains in this state for about a week. Motionless he
abides in this ecstasy. Books relate an incident of a Pacceka Buddha whose body was set
fire to while in this state. But he was not affected thereby.
Now when he emerges from this state the first
thought-moment to arise is an Anagami Fruit-consciousness in the case of an Anagami, or an
Arahat Fruit-consciousness in the case of an Arahat. Thereafter the stream of
consciousness subsides into bhavanga.
13. Duhetukanam ahetukana˝ca pan'ettha kriya-javanani c'eva appanajavanani ca na
labbhanti. Tatha ˝anasampayuttavipakani ca sugatiyam, duggatiyam pana ˝anavippayuttani
ca maha-vipakani na labbhanti.
Tihetukesa ca khinasavanam
kusalakusala-javanani ca na labbhanti'ti. Tatha sekkhaputhu-jjananam kriyajavanani.
Ditthigatasampayuttavicik cchajavanani ca sekkhanam. Anagami-puggalanam pana
patighajavanani ca na labbhanti. Lokuttarajavanani ca yathasakamariyanam eva
ž 14. Asekkhanam
catucattalisasekkhanam uddise Chapa˝˝asavasesanam catupa˝˝asa sambhava.
Ayam ettha puggalabhedo.
ž 13. Herein, to those whose
rebirth-consciousness is conditioned by two roots (alobha and adosa) and conditioned by
none, functional javanas and ecstatic javanas (*1) do not arise. Likewise, in a happy
plane, resultants, accompanied by knowledge, also do not arise (*2). But in a woeful state
they do not also get great resultants dissociated with knowledge
To the Corruption-freed (Arahats) amongst
those whose rebirth-consciousness is conditioned by three roots, no moral nor immoral
javanas arise. Similarly to the Sekhas and worldlings functional javanas do not arise. Nor
do the javanas connected with misbelief and doubts arise to the Sekhas.(*3) To the Anagami
individuals there are no javanas connected with aversion. (*4) But the supramundane
javanas are experienced only by Ariyas (*5) according to their respective capacities.
ž 14. As they arise it is stated that
Asekhas experience 44 (*6), Sekhas 56 (*7), and the rest 54 (*8) classes of consciousness.
Herein this is the classification of
(*1) It is only a tihetuka individual that
could develop Jhanas or attain Sainthood.
(*2) Owing to the inferiority of the
rebirth-consciousne tihetuha tadalambanas do not arise.
(*3) Because they are eradicated on attaining
(*4) Because an Anagami eradicates
sense-desires and aversion.
(*5) All the four classes of Saints are
called Ariyas because they are far removed from passions.
(*6) Namely, 18 ahetukas + 16 sobhana kriya
and vipaka, + 9 rupa and arupa kriya, + 1 arahatta Phala.
(*7) Namely, 7 akusalas + 21 (8+ 5 + 4 + 4)
kusalas + 23 kamavacara vipakas + 2 avajjanas + 3 phalas.
(*8) To worldlings 54, namely, 12 akusalas +
17 ahetukas + 16 sobhana kusala and vipakas + 9 rupa and arupakusalas.
Section on Planes
15. Kamavacarabhumiyam pan' etani sabbani 'pi vithicittani yatharaham upalabbhanti.
pathamamaggarupavacarahasanahetthimaruppavajjitani ca labbhanti.
Sabbattha'pi ca tam pasadarahitanam tam tam
dvarikavithicittani na labbhant' eva.
Asa˝˝asattanam pana sabbatha'pi
ž 16. Asitivithicittani kame rupe
Catusatthi tatharuppe dvecattalisa labbhare.
ž 17. Icc'evam
chadvarikacittappavatti yathasambhavam bhavangantarita yavatayukamabbhocchinna pavattati'
Vithi-Sangaha-Vibhago nama Catuttho-Paricchedo.
ž 15. In the Sense sphere all these
foregoing thought-processes occur according to circumstances.
On the Plane of Form (all) with the exception
of javanas connected with aversion and retentive moments.
On the Formless Plane (all) with the
exception of the First Path, rupavacara consciousness, smiling consciousness, and the
lower arupa classes of consciousness.
In all planes, to those who are devoid of
sense-organs, thought-processes connected with corresponding doors do not arise.
To those individuals without consciousness
there is absolutely no mental process whatsoever.
ž 16. In the sense-sphere, according to
circumstances, 80 (*1) thought-processes are obtained, on the Plane of Form 64 (*2), on
the Formless Plane 42 (*3).
Herein this is the section on Planes.
ž 17. Thus the thought-processes connected
with six doors, as they arise, continue without any break, intercepted by bavangas, while
Thus ends the fourty chapter in the
Compendium of Abhidhamma, entitled the Analysis of Thought-processes.
(*1) Namely, 54 kamavacaras + 18 rupa and
arupa kusalas and kriyas + 8 lokuttaras = 80.
(*2) Namely, 10 akusalas (excluding 2
patighas) + 9 ahetuka vipakas (excluding kaya, ghana and jivha vi˝˝anas) + 3 ahetuka
kriyas + 16 kamavacara kusalas and kriyas + 10 rupa kusalas aud kriyas + 8 arupa kusalas
and kriyas + 8 lokuttaras = 64.
(*3) Namely, 10 akusalas + 1 manodvaravajjana
+ 16 kamavacara kusalas and kriyas + 8 arupa kusalas and kriyas + 7 lokuttaras (excluding
sotapatti magga) = 42.
Diagram IX - Thought-Processes
When, for instance, a visible object
enters the mind through the eye-door, a thought-process runs as follows -
Pa˝cadvara citta vithi - Ati Mahanta
Immediately after this five
sense-door thought-process, the stream of consciousness subsides into bhavanga. Then there
arises a mind-door thought-process perceiving the aforesaid visible object mentally as
2 - 8
9 - 10
Again the stream of
consciousness subsides into bhavanga, and two more similar thought-processes arise before
the object is actually known.
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