Section - I: Abbreviation
Section - II: Introduction
Section - III: Sumedhā' s conception on life
Section - IV: What is the meaning of Pāramī and its importance in
Section - V: How many kinds of Pāramīs are there in Theravāda
Buddhism,and what the is meaning of them?
Section - VI: What are the thirty varieties of Perfection (Pārami)?
Section -VII: Why is it called minor perfection in English or
Cūla-pāramī in Pāli?
Section - VIII: The Ten perfections in detail
Section - IX: Conclusion
Section - I:
Section - II:
In Theravādin and Mahāyanic Buddhism there are
Pāramīs and it is very important not only for Two Buddhist schools but
also other religions if they want to practice them. Pāramīs lead one
nearer and nearer to Nibbāna. As we know from all the past Bodhisattas,
everyone wanting to become a Fully-Enlightened One must follow the Ten
Pāramis according to their temperaments-Pa˝˝āpārāmī, Saddāparamī, and
Viriyāpāramī. A real Bodhisatta who follows Pa˝˝āpāramī must practice
throughout four asaṅkkheyyas and one hundred thousand world cycles. A
real Bodhisatta who follows Saddāpāramī must spend eight asaṅkkheyyas
and one hundred thousand world cycles. And a real Bodhisatta who follows
Viriyāparamī must be practiced sixteen asaṅkkheyyas and one hundred
thousand world cycles. In the present time our Gotama Buddha also had
performed these Ten Pāramīs through four asaṅkkheyyas and one hundred
thousand world cycles until he became the Fully-Enlightened One.
Therefore, every Bodhisatta who wants to become a
Fully-Enlightened One in the future must practice the Ten Pāramīs at
least four asaṅkkheyyas and one hundred thousand world cycles.
Section - III: Sumedhā's conception on life
Sumadhā was a son of rich man at Aramavatī, the royal
city. He was born in a rich family. His parents were of pure morality
and a high race at that time.
At the age of sixteen Sumedhā had acquired enough
education. Unfortunately, his parents passed away when he was very
young. All of his parent's wealth was guarded by his parents' personal
treasurer (financier). When he had come of age, the financier handed
over all wealth of his parents to him together with the lists of various
things. When he saw his properties, he had a great thought to himself:
"My great grandparents, grandparents and parents were only able to make
great collecting and save properties, but they did have not the ability
to take them along with them. As for me, I will carry all the wealth
along with me after my death." So at that moment a deep understanding of
life arose in him: "If there is heat, there must be cold; in the same
way, if there is death, there must be deathlessness."
After this deep thought about his future life, he
opened his treasure houses and gave all his possessions away such as
money-houses, silver-houses, golden-houses and so on. Afterwards he went
to Himavantā and made himself an ascetic. Only within seven days, he
obtained supernormal-power. He could travel in the air.
Some time after, there was a golden occasion to
welcome the Buddha Dīpaṅkarā to Rammavatī city. The people of Rammavatī
city were repairing the road, and were very happy to wait for the coming
of Buddha Dipankara. While traveling through the sky, suddenly the
ascetic ā saw the people very cheerful in the road-reconstruction and
city-decoration. He came down and questioned them. They answered that
they were repairing the road in order to welcome Buddha Dīpaṅkarā and
his followers so they could tread on the road comfortably. The ascetic ā
felt very delighted and has a deep thought: "Oh! It is very difficult to
hear the word 'Buddha' and it is indeed, harder to become a Buddha." So
he asked permission from them to give him a room to repair a part of the
With his supernormal-power he could have finished the
path repairing quickly but he did not like to do so. So he used his own
labor with the purpose that he would gain more merit by using his labor
rather than by using his supernormal-power. Before he finished repairing
his portion, the Buddha and his disciples came. To protect the feet of
the Buddha and his disciples from getting soiled, he laid down on the
mud as a human-bridge. Among the welcoming people, there was a young
woman, named Sumittā. As soon as the young woman saw the ascetic, she
was very very happy and delighted. She therefore gave five lotus-flowers
to him and left three lotus-flowers in her hands. The ascetic a offered
the five lotus-flowers to the Buddha while lying on the muddy road.
On seeing the Buddha with noble glory the young a
thought: "If I wish I can even become an Arahant who has eliminated all
defilements (kilesas) today. Yet it is not appropriated for me to leave
others wandering in Samsāra although I have enough energy to save all
beings. I will try to become a Buddha like Buddha Dipankara." So he
immediately decided with firm resolution to become a Buddha. Afterwards,
he has made the following bold proclamations:
As I know the Four Noble Truths, so shall I make others know them;
As I am liberated from the bonds of the life, so shall I make others be
As I swim across the great whirlpool of Samsāra, so shall I make others
do the same.
The Buddha Dipankara, standing in front of Sumedhā,
prophesied as follows:
This young ascetic a, lying down as a bridge at the
risk of his life, will become a Buddha like me in the future. On hearing
this, the people cheered and honored ascetic Sumedhā. Although he laid
down as a human-bridge, but the Buddha and his disciples did not tread
on him, only passed by him. The future Buddha, ascetic a, having
obtained the prophecy made by Buddha Dīpaṅkarā, got up and sat cross
legged with great joy. When he reviewed ways and means to be a Buddha,
he found the Ten Noble Perfections such as Charity, Morality and so on.
While he reflected on the Ten Perfections repeatedly, the earth shook
violently as if cheering the Bodhisattva.
Section - IV: What is the meaning of Pāramī and
its importance in Buddhism?
Pāramī is a Pāli word. It means "Perfection" or
"Completeness" or "Highest state."
Pāramī is very important in Buddhism.The one who want
to fulfill one's wish must practice the Ten Pāramīs, because the Ten
Pāramīs are very powerful for any person who wants to attain the highest
destination in the present life as well as in the future existences.
Even our Lord Buddha before attaining Full-Enlightenment performed these
Ten Paramis through four asaṃkkheyyas and one-lakh world cycles (cattari
). Without performing Ten Pāramis He could not become a Buddha. So,
these Ten Pāramīs are very important in Buddhism for anyone who wants to
fulfill their better life in this very life as well as in the future
existences. Therefore, one should perform them as much as possible.
Section - V:
How many kinds of Pāramīs are there in Theravāda
Buddhism, and what are the meanings of them?
According to the Theravāda Tradition there are Ten
kinds of Pāramīs, namely:
the perfection in charity,
the perfection in morality,
the perfection in renunciation,
the perfection in wisdom,
5- Vīriya-pāramī: the
perfection in effort,
Khantī-pāramī: the perfection in patience,
the perfection in truthfulness,
perfection in resolution,
the perfection in loving-kindness,
10- Upekkhā-pāramī: the
perfection in equanimity.
These are the Ten Paramīs
in the Theravada Tradition of Buddhism, which our Lord Buddha had
fulfilled through four asaṅkkheyyas and one hundred thousand world
cycles (cattariī asaṅkkheyyāni
In order to become a Fully - Enlightened One.
VI:What are the
thirty varieties of Perfection (Paramīs)?
Theravāda Buddhism has three levels of Paramī, they
Cūla-pāramī: minor perfection,
One who has performed the above perfections by
sacrificing the external properties, such as money, silver, gold,
clothes, house, medicine, food and so on is has achieved minor
Section VII: Why is it called "minor perfection"
in English or cūla-paramī in Pāli?
Because this pāramī is very easy for everyone
performing it. If one has a lot of properties or if one has generous
mind one can perform this kind of pāramī very easy.
When one sees another person in an unfortunate
situation, unhappy circumstances such as he has no clothes to wear,
without food to eat, without lodging to dwell in, one may feel very pity
on him with a generous mind. Then one can give away one's properties to
that unfortunate person. In this case, one can perform minor perfection
(cūla-pāramī) in Buddhism.
Concerning this minor perfection (cūla-pāramī) we
have a special story of Bodhisatta Sumedhā as follows:
In the ancient time, our Lord Buddha (Gotama Buddha)
was a bodhisatta named Sumadhā. He was born in a very rich family, when
he reached the age of sixteen his grandparents and his parents had
passed away and left for him a lot of properties such as gold pots,
silver pots, money, places, etc., then he himself thought that: "My
grandparents and my parents know how to earn wealth, money, treasure,
but they could not know how to carry with them when they passed away."
Then he himself had a great thought that: "I must
carry all my wealth after my death by the mean of performing charity
(dāna)." Therefore, he announced to the area of his living that:
"Everyone who needs my properties can come and take it please do not
hesitate I will give it for you." After
announcement Bodhisatta a gave away all his
properties and went to the forest to become a hermit. By performing this
deed his wealth was never lost, and good results always follows him as
his shadow follows his body.
Manasā ce paduṭṭhena
Bhāsasi vā karoti vā
Tato naṃ dukkhamanveti
Cakkamva vahato padaṃ."
"All mental phenomena have
mind as their forerunner;
they have mind as their chief; they are mind-made.
If one speaks or acts with an evil and, 'dukkha' follows him just as the
wheel follows the hoof- print of the ox that draws the cart"
Manasā ce pasannena
Bhāsati vā karoti vā
Tato nam sukha manveti
"All mental phenomena have
mind as their forerunner;
they have mind as their chief; they are mind-made.
If one speaks or acts with a pure mind, happiness (sukha) follows him
like shadow that never leaves him."
Section - VIII:
The Ten Perfections (pāmīs) in detail
1 - Dāna-parami:
the fulfillment of the perfection of Charity (dāna)
In this case, firstly the boddhisatta fulfilled the
perfection of Charity (dāna) by giving away his own properties. It means
he gave both animate and inanimate properties to others with a willing
mind. By the fulfillment of his charity perfection (dāna-pāramī), he
(the Bodhisatta) did not wish to gain worldly pleasures, but in order to
attain Supreme Enlightenment. According to the Buddhavaṃsa Atthakatha or
Jataka he fulfilled the charity perfection (dāna-pāramī) in many
existences. Among them, the lives of King Sivi and the king Vessantarā
are very famous and well-known.
King Sivi, the Bodhisatta, was very earnest in giving
charity (dāna), and so Sakka, the king of the Deva realm, wanted to
investigate. Therefore, Sakka himself came disguised in the form of an
old blind Brahmin and asked for the eyes of king Sivi. King Sivi took
out both of his eyes and offered them willingly.
In another case, the Bodhisatta, in the life of King
Vesantarā, donated food, clothing and other utensils valued at six
hundred thousand silver coins, in six pavilions daily. Once, the
Brahmins from Kalinga asked the King to donate to them the invaluable
white elephant and the King offered it to them generously too. His
followers objected to the last donation, because white elephant is
regarded as a great honorable wealth to the people as well as to the
country. Therefore, he had to leave his royal palace and live as an
ascetic in the valley of Vankabā in the Himavantā together with his
Queen Maddi Devī, his son Jāli, and daughter Kahṇajina. During the time
of his staying there, the brahmin Jūjakā asked for his children, and he
offered them also. He also offered his wife Queen Maddī to Sakka who
disguised himself as a Brahmin.
In the stories above, the Bodhisatta donated animate
and inanimate properties. He donated not only his own properties but
also his wife, as well as his children, in order to fulfill his charity
perfection (dāna-pāramī) in many existences. Moreover, he sacrificed his
own limbs, even his own life, in many existences without hesitation and
fear. So, his intention was very high. This is the special lesson for us
in this very life.
"Idha modati pecca modati
katapu˝˝o ubhayattha modati.
So modati so pamodati
"Here he rejoices, hereafter
In both states the well-doer rejoices.
He rejoices, exceedingly rejoices,
Perceiving the purity of his own deeds."
2 - Sīla-pāramī:
the fulfillment of the perfection of Morality (sīla)
Controlling the verbal actions and bodily actions due
to avoid unwholesome deeds is called morality (sīla). According to the
Buddhist tradition there are different kinds of morality (siīla), and
the people who observe them are also different. There are five precepts
or eight precepts or nine precepts for lay devotees, and ten precepts
for novices, and two hundred twenty seven precepts for Buddhist monks,
The Bodhisatta fulfilled his morality perfection
(sīla-pāramī) in his many existences. We can say that he fulfilled the
morality of perfection through four asaṅkkheyyas and one hundred
thousand world cycles (cattarī
There is a very famous story of Prince Alīnasattu who fulfilled the
perfection of morality. His father while hunting in the forest, reached
to banyan tree that was occupied by an ogre who had the power to catch
and eat everybody who passed nearby his area. His father returned home
after giving a promise to the ogre that he would come back on the next
day to be eaten by the ogre. When his son who named Alīnasattu knew
about this situation, on behalf of his father, he himself went to the
place occupied by the ogre. When the ogre saw prince Alīnasattu coming
boldly, the ogre was humbled and dared not kill him. Finally, the ogre
listened to a Dhamma talk by prince Alīnasattu and became one who
undertook the five precepts. As we knew in the charity perfection
(dāna-pāramī) the Bodhisatta has already scarified his life in order to
fulfill the perfection of charity (dāna-pāramī). Therefore,, in the case
of fulfillment of perfection of morality he never hesitated to risk his
life due to fulfill his perfection of morality with bold mind through
four asaṅkkheyyes and one hundred thousand world cycles (cattarī
3 - Nekkhamma-pāramī:
the fulfillment of the perfection of
Practicing an ascetic life and abandoning worldly
sensual pleasure is called the fulfillment of the perfection of
renunciation. For Bodhisatta left a golden throne many times in his past
existences. When the Bodhisatta was a King Sutasoma (Jataka
No.525.Vol 6), he left his golden throne and dear Queen, as well
as dear sons and daughters, to become an ascetic. However, his life as
Prince Ayoghara is perhaps the most notable. After the birth of Prince
Ayoghara, he always lived in an iron cage because he wanted to escape
from the danger of ogres. He had to learn lessons there up to the age of
sixteen. When he reached sixteen, his father had an intention to give
him the throne and he was taken out of the cage. At that time, the
prince himself thought that: "In past lives I have been in my mother's
womb for ten months and in iron cage for sixteen years. Though I had
escaped from them. But I have not escaped from death yet." Because of
this deeply thought, he abandoned the royal throne and went to the
forest to become an ascetic:
friends and citizens assembled here,
Hearken, my trusty counselors, to me
Now that gray hairs upon my head appear,
Henceforth it is my well a monk to be"
Indeed, he knew about his friends and citizens. They
always trusted in him as a counselor, but he realized that even a
counselor or a king both of them could not escape the birth, aging,
sickness and death. Only became an ascetic life might he escape from
them. Therefore, he left his kingdom and became an ascetic forever. In
the same way, we can look to when our Lord Buddha was a Prince
Siddhattha. He was expected to take the royal throne. His life was
luxurious but could not satisfy him, and he left the royal kingdom and
became an ascetic. Finally he attained the final goal or Nibbāna
Parilāho na vijjati.
"For him who has completed
for him who is sorrowless,
for him who from destroyed all ties,
the fever (of passion) exists not."
Paṅ˝˝ā-pāramī: the fulfillment of
the perfection of the Wisdom (pa˝˝ā)
'Pa˝˝ā' is the
pāli word meaning 'Wisdom', and
'wisdom' means the knowledge in some aspects such as the knowledge of
arts, knowledge of sciences, knowledge of philosophy, etc., knowledge
here is meaning the skill in both practicing and theories which can
differentiate the cause and result or cause and effect.
There are seven ways of developing wisdom:
1- Asking questions to the wise
2- Keeping one's mind and one's body clean,
3- Being balanced in faith, effort, etc.,
4- Disassociating with the unwise or fools,
5- Associating with the wise or sage,
6- Pondering deeply on difficult problems or matter,
7- Often desiring for the wisdom wherever lying down, sitting, standing
The Bv 60 stated that:
"Wisdom is best, the good confess
Like the moon in starry skies
Virtue, fortune, righteousness,
Are the handmaids of the wise."
Therefore, according to this quotation the wisdom is
the best and it takes a predominant role in the performing of various
functions. It is known as Vimamsadhipati, one of the four predominant
conditions. That wisdom is of three kinds:
- Sutamaya-pa˝˝ā: the
wisdom obtained from hearing,
- Cintāmaya-pa˝˝ā: the wisdom obtained from thinking,
- Bhāvanāmaya-pa˝˝ā: the wisdom obtained from Jhāna and phala.
Based on these three kinds of wisdom, the Bodhisatta
strived for attainment of mundane psychic power (lokiya jhāna abhi˝˝a).
Then he strived for the attainment of lokiya bhāvanā pa˝˝ā until he
reached sankharupekkhā vipassanā˝āṇa. He had strived to obtain them
because he wanted to work for the welfare of all beings, as well as
saving all beings from the misery of Samsāra. So the Bodhisatta
fulfilled the perfection of wisdom up to the state of sankharupekkhā˝āna
before he attained Buddhahood.
5 - Vīriya-pāramī: the fulfillment of the
perfection of Effort (vīriya)
The Bodhisatta, in fulfilling the perfection of
Effort, tried all his best, risked his own body such that the blood and
flesh dried up and only sinews, bones, and skin remained.
In order to fulfill his perfection he forgot himself
and tried to accomplish a task only. Whatever obstruction or difficulty,
he did not step back with fear and hesitation. Besides, he strived to
overcome many difficulties until he had reached the final goal
(Nibbāna). His mind had steadfast strenuous effort in noble righteous.
Which is called right effort (sammā-vāyāma). Right effort is also known
as right exertion (sammāppadhāna), which is the endeavor to put away
evil that has arisen in the past, to abstain from evil that has not
arisen yet, to strive for the arising of good, that has not yet arisen,
and to develop good that has already arisen.
The Māhajanaka-Jātaka No 539.V6 states that: "Who
art thou, striving manfully here in mid-ocean from land? Who is the
friend thou trustiest in, to lend to these a helping hand?"
By effort one can accomplish one's wish in a small
case, as well as a big case or important situation. Without putting any
effort in to studying we can not gain what we want to obtain. Therefore,
effort is very important in fulfilling the task. Looking at the many
past existences of our Lord Buddha. So we can see clearly whatever the
Bodhisatta had done in the past while fulfilling the perfection of
effort, he did not make less effort for ordinary tasks nor put forth
more energy for more arduous ones. He always made the same maximum
exertion whether for a small task or a great task. So his exertion was
constantly going on and on while he was fulfilling any wish of his life.
Therefore, in the Cp A 274 it is said that energy (vīriya) is the
highest effort (uttamaṃ padhānaṃ), because it is able to bring one to
Supreme Enlightenment (sammāsabodhim pāpetum samatthatāya).
While the ship was crossing the sea, it was violently
struck by a great storm. Although all the men on the ship were hopeless
and did not attempt to survive the disaster, the Bodhisatta used all his
strength and swam in the wide ocean for the seven days without taking a
rest. Even though he felt very tired he strived so much. Then he not
only escaped from the disaster with the help of the Goddess Manimekhalā
but he also gained the throne of Mithīlā. In this dangerous situation if
he did not make any effort to swim, he might not meet anyone who would
save him, and he would die like others who went together with him for
trading in other lands. Therefore, effort is very important in every
situation. Without effort our Lord Buddha could not be a Buddha at the
present time. In the same way, without effort Bodhisatta Māhajanaka
could not reach other lands. Otherwise he might have died in the ocean
like the others. So effort is a special lesson fore everyone who wishes
to fulfill for one's wish.
saṃyamena damena ca
Dipaṃ kayirātha medhāvī
Yaṃ ogho nābhikirati."
"By sustained effort,
earnestness, discipline, and self-control
let the wise man make for himself an island,
which no flood overwhelms."
6 - Khantī-pāramī: the fulfillment of the
perfection of the Patience (khanti)
Tolerance and forbearance arise out of a peaceful
mind with the thought: " If I retaliate to the ill-treatment done
to me by a stupid person, I shall also be a stupid one."
Esa dhammo sanatano."
"Hatred never ceases through
hatred in this world;
Through love alone it ceases. This is an eternal law."
Such kind of practice is called the fulfillment of
the perfection of Patience.
The Bodhisatta, for the welfare of all beings,
fulfilled the perfection of patience in four asaṅkkheyyasand one hundred
thousand world cycles. (cattarī
Regarding to the fulfillment of the perfection of
patience the life of the great monkey-king is notable. A Brahmin, the
future Devadatta, climbed up a tree, but unfortunately a branch of the
tree broke, and he fell into a ravine. When the monkey-king saw him
crying, he compassionately took him out of the ravine. While the tired
monkey-king was sleeping with his head upon the Brahmin's lap, the
stupid ungrateful Brahmin mercilessly struck the monkey-king with a
stone in order to have his flesh as a meal. Indeed, the Brahmin was a
very rude person; he had no gratitude to his benefactor. So, the
monkey-king woke up and suddenly ran up a tree. But really the
monkey-king was still worried that the stupid, ungrateful Brahmin might
lose his way in the forest and die. As he dared not get down to the
ground, he jumped from one tree to another, showing the Brahmin the way
to his home by the drops of blood shedding from his head.
"Na pupphagandho paṭivātam
na candanaṃ tagaramallikā vā
sata˝ ca gandho pativātam eti
sabbā disā sappuriso pavāti."
"The perfume of flower blows
not against the wind,
nor does the fragrance of sandalwood, tagara and jasmine,
but the fragrance of the virtuous blows against the wind,
the virtuous man pervades every direction."
"Candanaṃ tagaraṃ vā' pi
uppalaṃ atha vassikī
Etesaṃ gandhajātānaṃ sīlagandho anuttaro."
"Sandalwood, tagara, lotus,
above all these kinds of fragrance,
the perfume of virtue is by far the best."
By this monkey-king's story as well as verses, Nos 54
-55 in the Dhamma-pāda we can realize that the fragrance of a noble
person is the best one in the world and it can pervade everywhere,
against the wind, and flies in all directions in the world. Such as the
deed of the monkey-king who took the Brahmin out from the ravine and
showed him the way to go back to his house.
the fulfillment of the perfection of Truthfulness (sacca)
Not telling a lie only telling the truth and always
keeping one's promise is called the perfection of truthfulness
(saccā-pāramī). Especially, the Bodhisatta never told lies; he always
kept his words as he promised others and he did as he said in order to
fulfill the perfection of the truthfulness. The Bodhisatta had fulfilled
the perfection of truthfulness for four asaṅkkheyas and one hundred
thousand world cycles (cattarī
The life of the Bodhisatta as
King Mahāsutasoma is remarkable in the fulfillment of the perfection of
truthfulness (saccā-pāramī), (Mahāsutasoma
Jātaka.No537.Vol.6). While the Bodhisatta was King Mahāsutasoma, King
Porisāda was expelled from his country, because he was found eating
human beings passing by. One day, a sharp stump pierced his sole. In
order to heal wound, he made a pledge to the guardian deva of a banyan
tree, saying: "Oh Deva, help me, please! If you heal my wound in only
during one week. I will offer you as a sacrifice the blood from the
throats of all Jambudipa Kings. "Within one week his wound healed of its
own accord, and he caught all Jambudīpa kings to offer their blood as
sacrifice. King Mahāsutasoma, just before being arrested, made a promise
to a Brahmin to listen to the Dhamma propounded by the Brahmin. So he
requested Porisāda to let him fulfill his promise to the Brahmin,
promising that he would come back after he had listened to the Dhamma.
Porisāda released him easily. After he had heard the Dhamma, though he
knew that he could be killed, he came back to Porisāda without breaking
his promise. Porisāda was surprised to see him again and asked why he
was not afraid to die. King Mahāsutasoma preached the Dhamma to Porisāda
and thus Porisāda became a good man immediately. So he released all the
arrested kings. With the help of kingMahāsutasoma, Porisāda regained his
kingdom. The truthfulness of King Mahāsutasoma not only helped himself
but influenced many others.
"Dhammapīty sukhaṃ seti
"He who imbibes the Dhamma
abides in happiness with mind pacified;
the wise man ever delights in the Dhamma revealed by the Ariyas."
The delight in the Dhamma and truthfulness of King
Mahāsutasoma was very effective. It made good not only for him but also
helped others know how to gain benefits as well as be free from all
8 - Adiṭṭhāna-pāramī: the fulfillment of the
perfection of Resolution (adiṭṭhāna)
Adiṭṭhāna is a pāli word, meaning "firm
determination" or "solemn resolution" to perform good deeds that have
already been planned to be done. The one who always keeps adiṭṭhāna
focuses on the plan by which he wants to do it. The Bodhisatta, in his
many past existences, fulfilled the perfection of resolution. It is
obvious that the Bodhisatta fulfilled the perfection of resolution in
the life of Prince Temiya. The Bodhisatta, in his previous existence
before the life of Prince Metiya, had been born in hell (niraya) for
some minor error in his judgment as a king in settling disputes.
etam budddhana sasanaṃ."
"Not to do evil,
To cultivate good
to purify one's mind.
This is the teaching of the Buddhas."
The one-month-old prince Temiya, lying under the
while royal parasol, attained the knowledge of jatissara that could
recall the previous existences while he was gazing at the parasol, he
saw his life in hell. He was greatly socked and afraid of becoming a
king. So the goodness of the while parasol, who has been his mother in
the past life, knowing this intention, advised him thus. "my beloved
son, Temiya, do not be afraid; if you do not want to be a king,
disguised yourself to be a dumb and deaf person".
Since at that time onwards, he made up hi mind to
pretend to be a dumb and deaf person. So he did not speak as well as he
did not listen to others. When he reached the age of sixteen his father
decided that he was not worthy of royal throne and gave the order to
expel him to the forest and kill him there. When he was about to be
killed, he explained to his parents why he pretended to be deaf and
dumb. After explanation he made himself a recluse.
na so sabbattha jāyati
yatha so jāyatī dīro
taṃ kulaṃ sukhamedhati."
Hard to find is a man of
such as man is not born everywhere.
Where such a wise man is born,
That family thrives happily.
9 - Mettā-pāramī: the ffulfillment of the
perfection of Loving-kindness (Mettā)
Mettā is a pāli word, it means "loving-kindness," or
having the desire to bring about the welfare of others. It is different
from the love with attachment such as the love between men and women
(Tanhā-pema), a husband and wife, parents and children, and so on.
Loving-kindness has the nature of pure and noble will (adosa), and it is
also called the sublime state of mind (Brahmavihāra). One who can
cultivate loving - kindness is said to be living in the sublime abode.
Besides, Mettā means wishing for the well-being of
others. One who has cultivated loving-kindness, does not look at other's
faults even when he is insulted verbally or bodily. Looking at only the
virtues of others, he always tries to get benefit for other's welfare.
To become a fully-enlightened Buddha, the Bodhisatta
fulfilled the perfection of loving - kindness through four asaṅkkheyyas
and one hundred thousands world cycles. Especially, his life as the
ascetic Suvannasāma was very remarkable. He lived in the forest and
looked after his parents who were blinded by a venomous snake. He took
care of his parents and whatever his parents commanded he fulfilled
willingly. He also loved with true loving-kindness, harmless to all
animals, as well as wild beasts such as tigers, lions, leopards, etc.,
He cultivated loving- kindness firmly, and never felt angry even towards
the king, Pīliyakkha, who shot him with a poisoned arrow, thinking him
to be a beast. Later, by the power of loving-kindness and truthfulness,
the poison became ineffective and disappeared. Thus not only his life
was saved but also his parents regained their eye-sight.
"Nahi verena verāni
"Hatred never cease through
hatred in this world;
through love alone they cease. This is an eternal law."
10 - Upekkhā-pāramī: the fulfillment of the
perfection of the Equanimity (Upekkha).
is a pāli word meaning "equanimity" or "equilibrium" of the mind. It
means maintaining a neutral attitude towards pleasant and unpleasant
things without bias towards either of them, and not having a bias on
account of hatred or love. So, upekkhā-pāramī is the perfection to be
fulfilled with a balanced attitude without leaning towards the extremes
of love and hatred. The Bodhisatta fulfilled the perfection of
equanimity or equilibrium by maintaining a neutral attitude towards such
feelings as love, hatred, happiness or unhappiness, which arise in the
mind. Especially, Bodhisatta Lomahamsa was very famous in his
fulfillment of the perfection of equanimity or equilibrium (Lomahaṃsa
Jātaka No. 94.Vol. 1). When his parents died, they left him much
propertiy such as gold, silver, money and so on. Then one day, he had a
deep thought of charity (dāna). He gave all his property in donation and
went into a forest. Although he wished to become an ascetic, he did not
have a desire to be praised by people. So he wandered around with a
single set of clothing. He did not stay for a long time in a place where
he was well treated and revered. When he reached a village, though he
was jeered and mocked insolently by wicked children and drunkards, he
was not angry with them. In the cemetery, he slept with his head on a
skull. The wicked kids gathered, and insulted him by spitting and
discharging excrement and urine on him. He neither got angry with the
children nor blamed them, nor felt depressed. Some people offered him
flowers, good food and drinks. But he did not feel affectionate towards
them either. His attitude towards good and bad was indifferent. He
steadfastly maintained and equanimity of mind (upekkhā) under any
"Khantī paramaṃ tapo
Nibbāna paramaṃ vadanti Buddhā
Nahi pabbajito parūpaghātī
Samano hoti paraṃ viheṭhayanto."
"Forbearing patience is the
Nibbana is supreme, say the buddhas.
He. Verity, is not a recluse who harms another
Nor is he an ascetic who oppresses others."
Section - IX: Conclusion
The Ten Pāramīs, are priceless Gems in the treasury
of Buddhism, which all Sammāsambuddhas, Paccekabuddhas, and Sāvakas have
to tread on. Buddhism has offered these Gems to humankind as a spiritual
gift to lead people to Nibbāna (Deathlessness) because, their function
is to help people eliminating greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), and delusion
(moha) as well as creating a peaceful world in which living beings are
dwelling. Those who have trodden on this journey must abandon their own
happiness and devote their life to the welfare and happiness of living
beings and gods.
The world is a long sigh of worries and sufferings.
Buddhism, therefore, has opened the way to relieve us from these. This
was the reason why the hermit Sumedhā delayed his enlightenment to enter
into a long trip of birth and death out of compassion for the good,
happiness and welfare of gods and humans.
The Buddha's history being with the time from the
time of Sumedhā, under the feet of Lord Buddha Dīpaṅkarā, making a great
vow to achieve Buddhahood. Do you know? When I read the great chronicle
of the Buddha, suddenly goose flesh arose all over my body, and I was
really attracted by this beautiful and marvelous history. The more I
read the Buddha's story, the more I was excited and I make a vow deep in
my heart to go on this journey.
May all persons put these Pāramīs into their daily
activities, the beauty of life in which one will get fragrant flowers
and sweet fruits of peace and happiness for oneself one's family, and
the people around one as well.
Dhp.V 25. Ch2. Pg 27