Buddhist Dictionary -
Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, by NYANATILOKA MAHATHERA
Sotāpanna: the 'Stream-winner' (Dự Lưu),
is the lowest of the 8 noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala -
thánh nhân). Three kinds are to be distinguished: the one 'with
7 rebirths at the utmost' (sattakkhattu-parama - thất lai),
the one 'passing from one noble family to another' (kolaṅkola
- gia gia), the one 'germinating only once more' (eka-bījī
- nhất chủng). As it is said (e.g. Pug. 37-39; A. III, 87):
(1) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters
(personality-belief, skeptical doubt, attachment to rules and
ritual; s. saṃyojana - kiết sử), has entered the stream
(to Nibbāna), he is no more subject to rebirth in lower worlds,
is firmly established, destined to full enlightenment. After
having passed amongst the heavenly and human beings only seven
times more through the round of rebirths, he puts an end to
suffering. Such a man is called 'one with 7 births at the
(2) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters....
is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having passed among
noble families two or three times through the round of rebirths,
puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one passing from
one noble family to another' (kolaṅkola).
(3) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 3 fetters....
is destined to full enlightenment, he, after having only once
more returned to human existence, puts an end to suffering. Such
a man is called 'one germinating only once more' (eka-bījī).
See Sotāpatti-saṃyutta (S. LV).
Sotāpannassa aṅgāni: the 'characteristic qualities of
a Stream-winner' are 4: unshakable faith towards the Enlightened
One, unshakable faith towards the Doctrine, unshakable faith
towards the Order, and perfect morality. Explained in S. LV, I,
D. 33, in S. XLVII, 8 and in Netti-ppakaraṇa these 4 qualities
are called Sotāpattiyaṅga (q.v.).
Sotāpatti: 'Stream-entry'; s. Sotāpanna; s. -magga, -phala,
'path and fruition of Stream-entry'; s. ariyapuggala.
simply ariya: 'Noble
Ones', 'noble persons'.
(A) The 8 ,a. are
those who have realized one of the 8 stages of holiness, i.e.
the 4 supermundane Paths (magga) and the 4
supermundane Fruitions (phala) of these paths.
There are 4 pairs:
1. The one realizing the path of Stream-winning (Sotāpattimagga).
2. The one realizing the fruition of Stream-winning (Sotāpattiphala).
3. The one realizing the path of Once-return (Sakadāgāmiphala).
4. The one realizing the fruition of Once-return (Sakadāgāmiphala).
5. The one realizing the path of Non-return (Anāgāmimagga).
6. The one realizing the fruition of Non-return (Anāgāmiphala).
7. The one realizing the path of Holiness (Arahatta-magga).
8. The one realizing the fruition of Holiness (Arahatta-phala).
Summed up, there are 4 noble individuals (ariya-puggala):
the Stream-Winner (Sotāpanna), the Once-Returner (Sakadāgāmi),
the Non-Returner (Anāgāmī), the Holy One (Arahat).
In A. VIII,10 and A. IX, 16 the gotrabhū (q.v.)
is listed as the 9th noble individual.
According to the Abhidhamma,
'supermundane path', or simply 'path' (magga), is
a designation of the moment of entering into one of the 4 stages
of holiness - Nibbāna being
the object - produced by intuitional insight (vipassanā)
into the impermanence, misery and impersonality of existence,
flashing forth and forever transforming one's life and nature.
By 'fruition' (phala) is meant those moments of
consciousness which follow immediately thereafter as the result
of the path, and which in certain circumstances may repeat for
innumerable times during the life-time.
(I) Through the path of Stream-winning (Sotāpatti-magga)
one 'becomes' free (whereas in realizing the fruition, one 'is'
free) from the first 3 fetters (saṃyojana, q.v.)
which bind beings to existence in the sensuous sphere, to wit:
(1) personality-belief (sakkāya-diṭṭhi; s. diṭṭhi),
(2) skeptical doubt (vicikicchā ,
q.v.), (3) attachment to mere rules and rituals (sīlabbata-parāmāsa; s. upādāna).
(II) Through the path of Once-Return (Sakadāgāmi-magga)
one becomes nearly free from the 4th and 5th fetters, to wit:
(4) sensuous craving (kāma-cchanda = kāma-rāga;
(5) ill-will (byāpāda = dosa, s. mūla).
(III) Through the path of Non-Return (Anāgāmi-magga)
one becomes fully free from the above-mentioned 5 lower fetters.
(IV) Through the path of Holiness (Arahatta-magga)
one further becomes free from the 5 higher fetters, to wit: (6)
craving for fine material existence (rūpa-rāga),
(7) craving for immaterial existence. (arūpa-rāga),
(8) conceit (māna, q.v.), (9) restlessness (uddhacca,
q.v.), (10) ignorance (avijjā, q.v.).
The stereotype Sutta text
runs as follows:
(I) "After the disappearance of the three fetters, the monk has
won the stream (to Nibbāna)
and is no more subject to rebirth in lower worlds, is firmly
established, destined for full enlightenment.
(II) "After the disappearance of the three fetters and reduction
of greed, hatred and delusion, he will return only once more;
and having once more returned to this world, he will put an end
(III) "After the disappearance of the five fetters he appears in
a higher world, and there he reaches Nibbāna without
ever returning from that world (to the sensuous sphere).
(IV) "Through the extinction of all cankers (āsava-kkhaya)
he reaches already in this very life the deliverance of mind,
the deliverance through wisdom, which is free from cankers, and
which he himself has understood and realized."
For the various classes of Stream-winners and Non-Returners, s. Sotāpanna, Anāgāmī.
(B) The sevenfold grouping of the noble disciples is as follows:
(1) the faith-devotee (saddhānusārī), (2) the
faith-liberated one (saddhāvimutta), (3) the
body-witness (kāya-sakkhī), (4) the
both-ways-liberated one (ubhato-bhāga-vimutta),
(5) the Dhamma-devotee
(dhammānusārī), (6) the vision-attainer (diṭṭhippatta),
(7) the wisdom-liberated one (paññā-vimutta). This
group of seven noble disciples is thus explained in Vis.M. XXI,
(1) "He who is filled with resolution (adhimokkha)
and, in considering the formations as impermanent (anicca),
gains the faculty of faith, he, at the moment of the path to
Stream-winning (A.1) is called a faith-devotee (saddhānusārī);
(2) at the seven higher stages (A. 2-8) he is called a
faith-liberated one (saddhā-vimutta). (3) He who
is filled with tranquility and, in considering the formations as
miserable (dukkha), gains the faculty of
concentration, he in every respect is considered as a
body-witness (kāya-sakkhī). (4) He, however, who
after reaching the absorptions of the immaterial sphere has
attained the highest
fruition (of Holiness), he is a both-ways-liberated one (ubhato-bhāga-vimutta).
(5) He who is filled with wisdom and, in considering the
formations as not-self (anattā), gains the faculty
of wisdom, he is at the moment of Stream-winning a Dhamma-devotee
(dhammānusārī), (6) at the later stages (A. 2-7) a
vision-attainer (diṭṭhippatta), (7) at the highest
stage (A. 8) a wisdom-liberated one (paññāvimutta)."
- Further details about the body-witness, the
both-ways-liberated one and the wisdom-liberated one, s. under
the three Pāḷi terms.
Cf. also M. 70; A. IX, 44; S. XII, 70; Pts.M. II, p. 33, PTS.
'who has entered the lineage (of the Noble Ones)', i.e. the
I. 'Maturity-Moment' (gotrabhū-citta) is
the last of the 4 impulsive moments (javana, q.v.;
cf. viññāṇa-kicca) immediately
preceding the entering into an absorption (jhāna, q.v.)
or into one of the supermundane paths (s.ariya-puggala, A.).
Cf. visuddhi VII.
II. The 'Matured One'. "He who is endowed with those things,
immediately upon which follows the entrance into the noble path (ariya-magga), this
person is called a 'Matured One'." (Pug 10). In the Com. to this
passage it is said: "He who through perceiving Nibbāna, leaves
behind the whole multitude of worldlings (puthujjana, q.v.),
the family of worldlings, the circle of worldlings, the
designation of a worldling and enters into the multitude of the
Noble Ones, the family of the Noble Ones, the circle of the
Noble Ones, and obtains the designation of a Noble One, such a
being is called a Matured One." By this state of consciousness
is meant the lightning-like transitional stage between the state
of a worldling and that of a Sotāpanna; s. ariya-puggala. - Gotrabhū is
mentioned in this sense, i.e. as 9th ariyapuggala (q.v.),
in A. IX, 10; X, 16.